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What is Web Hosting?
Web Hosting, in technical terms, provide you a partitioned storage space for you to put your website on server with Internet access. So that your website can be accessible via domain name (e.g. www.yourdomainname.com )
In Hong Kong, most web hosting packages already include website hosting, email hosting, DNS hosting and MySQL/MariaDB database hosting.
What is LAMP?
LAMP stands for “Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP”. It is common for PHP based website application hosting platform.
What is POP3?
POP3 stands for “Post Office Protocol – Version 3”. A common communication protocol between email client (e.g. Microsoft Outlook, Windows Live Mail, Mozilla Thunderbird) and email server. It downloads the email from server to client PC. By default, most email clients do not keep copy on email server (i.e. free up the space on server), the emails stored on client PC side.
What is IMAP?
IMAP stands for “Internet Message Access Protocol”. Apart from POP3, it is an another common communication protocol to check email, working between email client (e.g. Microsoft Outlook, Windows Live Mail, Mozilla Thunderbird) and email server. For IMAP, email items are stored on server (not stored on client PC). As email items stored on mail server, it is possible to share the mailbox access via IMAP by multiple devices (e.g. desktops, mobile devices, tablets).
What is SMTP?
SMTP stands for “Simple Mail Transfer Protocol”. It mainly used for two purpose. – One is email user sends email. It uses SMTP communication protocol to talk to email server (e.g. TCP port 465, TCP port 587) – Another main usage is the communication between 2 email servers via TCP port 25, i.e. from sender email server to recipient email server.
What is FTP?
FTP stands for “File Transfer Protocol”. Mainly used to transfer files between client PC and server. There are numerous FTP client softwares, e.g. FileZilla FTP client
What is PHP?
According to official website http://www.php.net, PHP is a widely-used open source general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for web development and can be embedded into HTML.
What is MySQL?
MySQL is a relational database management system.
In web hosting area, MySQL is mainly used for customer application (e.g. shopping cart) backend storage (e.g. product, product-category, product pricing, customer, customer-order, customer-order-item, etc.)
What is SSL?
SSL stands for “Secure Socket Layer”, encrypt the data between client PC and server connection. It prevents middle-man (e.g. router) inside the connection peeking the data.
Nowadays, most SSL-enabled connection is now using an enhanced encryption technology – TLS (Transport Layer Security).
What is Domain DNS server?
In Internet, every connected devices (client PC, your mobile device, hosting servers, router, etc) are distinguished by IP address. However, it is difficult for human to remember your IP address (e.g. IPv4: 192.168.23.24, IPv6: 2001:7fa:0:1::ca28:a197). It is easy for you to remember www.yahoo.com , www.google.com . When you enter “www.google.com” inside your browser, your computer will try to find “www.google.com” underlying IP, and contact that server for web page. Domain Name Server (DNS) is to used to resolve domain name to IP address.
What is DNS A record?
DNS A record means Address record E.g. www.website-solution.net = 184.108.40.206
What is DNS MX record?
DNS MX record is used for Mail eXchange. It specifies the domain incoming email server(s).
What is DNS PTR record (or called Reverse DNS record)?
PTR record is the name for particular IP address. For example, the PTR of 220.127.116.11 = www.website-solution.net PTR record is heavily used for anti-spam. If sender IP address does not have PTR record, the recipient mail server may classify the incoming email as spam.
If PTR record of particular IP can resolve to the same IP, it will be classified as Forward-confirmed reverse DNS (FCrDNS).
For example, PTR record of 18.104.22.168 = www.website-solution.net www.website-solution.net = 22.214.171.124 So this is a case for Forward-confirmed reverse DNS (FCrDNS).
What is DNS TXT record?
DNS TXT record is a text record for a domain name.
Common use is for anti-spam, e.g. SPF, DKIM definition. Sometimes it is used for domain ownership verification.
What is SpamAssassin?
SpamAssassin, developed by Apache Foundation, is one of the well-known and widely-deployed open source anti spam software.
What is SPF?
SPF stands for “Sender Policy Framework”. Through DNS TXT records, it specifies which Internet servers are legitimate to send email on behalf of this domain. It is one of the technique to detect spoofing email in antispam.
What is DKIM?
DKIM stands for “DomainKeys Identified Mail”. Mainly used to increase trust level of the email.
It employs asymmetric cryptography. It publishes public key via DNS TXT record, and stores the private key on mail server. When end-users send emails, mail server uses private key to digitally sign the email, and attach DKIM signature to the email header. When recipient mail server receive the email, it can use public-key (published in DNS TXT) to verify the integrity (i.e. not modified) and sender domain.
It is one of the email spoofing detection technique against phishing and email spam.
What is RBL?
RBL stands for “Real-time Block List”. Most RBL stores a list of IP address which is sending spam. (Not every RBL are IP blacklist, a few RBL are IP whitelist)
Some common RBL are SpamCop (bl.spamcop.net) , CBL (cbl.abuseat.org) , Spamhaus, etc.
RBL is one of the very common anti spam technique.
What is Greylisting?
There are blacklisting, whitelisting. In email world, there are Greylisting.
According to Wikipedia, Greylisting is a method of defending e-mail users against spam. A mail transfer agent (MTA) using greylisting will “temporarily reject” any email from a sender it does not recognize. If the mail is legitimate the originating server will try again after a delay, and if sufficient time has elapsed the email will be accepted.
What is ClamAV?
ClamAV is one of the free (freedom and free of charge), open source antivirus program, mainly for Linux platform. It is widely used on Linux mail server platform to scan incoming email for virus scanning.
What is Web Control Panel?
It provides an intuitive web interface for web hosting user to self-manage domain website setting, email mailbox management, database management, file managements etc.
What is Open Source software? Why Open Source?
Open Source software means the software source code is open. Anyone may get the source code and contribute it.
As open source software may be contributed by numerous people, the development/bug fix/security fix may become fast comparatively.
(However, as the software source code is open too, bad guy (e.g. Hacker) can get the source code too to inspect the software vulnerability and attack your website too. So, this is the reason when using open source software, remember to update it regularly for enhanced security)
Some software (especially paid one) are closed source (or called proprietary) software. Only the software vendor can change/improve it.
What is the difference among shared web hosting, VPS, and dedicated server?
Shared web hosting, work like a big bus, supports multiple customer websites and emails.
VPS hosting, work like a mini bus, supports limited customer websites and emails. More flexible on software version, a few server customization.
Dedicated server, work like a taxi, is dedicated to one customer only.
What is RAID?
RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks
RAID-0 = striping. Using 2 (or more) HDD, split the data across HDDs (no any data protection).
RAID-1 = mirroring. Using 2 (or more) HDD, each HDD hold the same data to provide data protection.
RAID-5 = parity. Use multiple disk to form a big array with distributed parity. Provide fault tolerance up to one failed drives
RAID-6 = double parity. Use multiple disk to form a big array with distributed parity. Provide fault tolerance up to two failed drives
What is AS network? BGP?
AS network means autonomous system network. It has its own AS number, IP address. It needs BGP router(s) to peer other AS network (e.g. ISP, IXP) , exchange BGP prefix and route Internet traffic.
BGP stands for Border Gateway Protocol. A standard route exchange protocol between ISP(s)/IXP(s).
What is WordPress?
Nowadays, WordPress is the most famous open source content management system. From statistics, over 25% websites in Internet are built from WordPress application already. There are numerous themes, plugins, and supports. Some are free, some are commercial.
If I run WordPress website, what do I need?
Your web hosting shall support (at least) PHP 5.2 and MySQL 5.0
In Website Solution, all web hosting servers support WordPress application (requires 1 database quota).
What is Joomla?
According to Wikipedia, Joomla is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) for publishing web content. It is built on a model–view–controller web application framework that can be used independently of the CMS.
Joomla is another common CMS application, apart from WordPress.
If I run Joomla website, what do I need?
Your web hosting shall meet the requirement – https://downloads.joomla.org/technical-requirements
In Website Solution, all web hosting servers support Joomla application (requires 1 database quota).
What is OpenCart?
OpenCart is a free and open source shopping cart application. There are numerous language and currencies support.
If I run OpenCart eCommerce website, what do I need?
Your web hosting shall meet the requirement – http://docs.opencart.com/requirements/
In Website Solution, all web hosting servers support OpenCart application (requires 1 database quota).
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